Benefits Of Brand Management Explained

Brand Management is a broader and much more strategic activity of any company than marketing alone. It is an important aspect of marketing so much so that brand management is nothing less than a CEO's responsibility in any company.

This management includes instilling a certain level of confidence in the minds of existing customers that the quality they expect from the line of products of the particular brand can be expected to continue. This has been known to increase sales by comparing the product with other brands, making a properly managed brand more favorable in the eyes of the investor.

A company that is well managed will be protected by trademark law, be easily recognized and associated with good quality products or services, thus making it easy to remember. The company will be easily pronounced in any language, if the product or service is an international one, and it will definitely attract attention when and wherever it is mentioned. Brand management will achieve all the above mentioned points effectively and will also make the brand stand out when placed among other competitive brands.

A single company may own many brands pertaining to a range of products. This makes brand management even more difficult, and at the same time, gains the confidence of the consumer more easily. A consumer aware of a certain brand, having used the product or service, will easily trust another product from the same company. So, marketers usually advertise the parent company along with the various brands associated with it.

This is commonly seen during a marketing campaign, for example, a hotel being advertised as 'The Residency Hotel' – An International Hotels holding. The International Hotels is the 'mother brand' and the 'local brand' will be the Residency Hotel. People from another country will trust the Residency Hotel even though they have not been there only because of the mother brand the – 'International Hotels' group. This is one instance of brand management and is placed under Brand Management Architecture.

An established brand will find favor among consumers who will be willing to trust a new product under the same brand without many questions being asked. This is why corporate houses spend millions of dollars annually promoting their brand all over the world.

Brand theft is a very disturbing activity. This is why almost every company has a department looking out for infringement of their brand. The Internet is a wonderful tool when it comes to promoting a brand and it is also a wonderful tool for crooks to use a well-known brand to market their products and services by simply modifying a brand name or logo to attract consumer attention.

It is believed that brand infringement accounts for a loss of 120 million dollars of trade each year all over the world.

Trade laws prevent anyone from using a similar sounding brand name to promote their products or services. Neither can they use a similar looking logo of an existing brand. By turning to the Internet to monitor their brands and prevent the brand from being tarnished, companies are increasingly preventing cheats from using their established brands from misleading unsuspecting customers and ruining a perfectly good brand image.

Management Details Brand can be described color : as the activity of the company management to Instill confidence in hwy customer base, Promote a line of products and improve sales turnover of the company. It is a very important part of marketing that can, if managed well, yield great returns for the business.

Source by Jameson M Brandon

Sample Hotel Reservation Letter – What to Include and Why

Just follow the steps in this sample hotel reservation letter structure and you should have no unexpected troubles.

Before you begin:

Hotel reservation letters can vary in style, But just make sure you give the reservation staff all the information they need to make sure there are no misunderstandings or disappointments on arrival.

Every specific piece of information should be in a separate paragraph. This makes for easier reading.

Keep it short and sweet (it’s not an essay), and don’t forget the following information:

1. Opening (example):

Dear Sir/Madam

My name is (your name) and I would like to book a (type of room) in your hotel for (number) nights.

2. Dates and times: (important)

I/We will be arriving on (date, including the day of the week) at approximately (time). Departure will be on (date, including the day of the week) at (time).

Notes: -State the date and approximate time of arrival and departure because it helps the staff know which guests will be arriving first to prepare the way for them, so waiting time for your room is kept to a minimum.

-It’s always a good idea to also include how many nights you will be staying in brackets. This is a good way for the reservation staff to double check the length of your stay as hotels count nights and not days when preparing your invoice.

-Remember, even if you arrive there at 2 o’clock in the morning, that night counts and you are seldom entitled to remain in your room after 12 o’clock noon on your departure date.

3. Number of people: (important)

How many adults? How many children? (always include children’s ages).

4. Room type(s) and preferred location(s):

Single, double, suite, ground floor, top floor, overlooking the sea, etc.

5. Board preferences: (important)

Self catering/bed & breakfast/half board/full board/all-inclusive

Note: make sure the hotel you are considering has the services you desire as not all hotels offer things like all-inclusive, and what you get for each type of service may vary from one hotel or country to another depending on their policies (find out before making your reservation to avoid disappointments).

6. Special needs/desires: (optional)

Some people may have health conditions which may require special attention (migraine sufferers would probably want a quiet room far away from any entertainment facilities, for example). Business men/women may need an internet connection in their rooms, while others may just have special preferences (overlooking the sea, rooms on upper floors, etc). These should be specified in your letter.

Note: Obviously the needs of those with medical conditions will be given more importance than other preferences if the hotel is fully booked, so don’t be surprised if you cannot get what you wanted unless you have the option and have paid for it specifically.

7. Facilities: (depending on the hotel)

If there are special facilities (sauna, jacuzzi, etc.) which need to be reserved before using them, you may wish to do so in advance to avoid waiting.

8. Contact information: (important)

Especially your phone number, cell phone and/or fax number.

*The main thing to remember is to include all the important information above and keep the hotel reservation letter short. The hotel staff prefer it that way and it helps to avoid confusion. You can even use bullet text to display the information.

Source by Stephen Ichabod

Guide to Standardized Recipe

Standardized Recipe Ideology

A standardized recipe refers to a particular standard-of-use of certain metrics in cooking – Standard sizes, time, temperature, amount, etc. Abiding by this rule creates uniformity in kitchen produce, whether or not it is tangible or intangible.

The idea of a standardized recipe is definitely not alien to many of us anymore. In fact, it has been very widely used around the globe and there are certain metrics to a standardized recipe that we must follow. In the kitchen, a standardized recipe is a crucial part of standardizing dishes, ingredients and elements in a restaurant that might lead to gain or loss during operational hours. Certain restaurants benchmark standardized recipes in their kitchen, some do not. There are pros and cons of using standardized recipes.

Benefits of having a Standardized Recipe

  1. Creates an absolute standard in kitchen produce and cooking activities.
  2. Allows smooth transition between different kitchen staffs.
  3. Maintains food quality and food standards during kitchen operational hours.
  4. Guiding tool for newcomers to the kitchen.
  5. Refresh minds of kitchen staff after some time. (Eliminating guesswork)
  6. Referral material should there be any disputes.
  7. Base for costing when kitchen costs are calculated.
  8. Be a great guide to implementing a new menu should there be any need.
  9. Planning and costing purposes when a particular event needs accounting/kitchen control auditing.
  10. Prevents raw food leftovers (with good Kitchen Control)

Cons of having a Standardized Recipe

  1. Inconvenient – This can be from the Head Chef keeping the list of standardized recipe in his room and had it locked or having three big books of standardized recipe and need kitchen staff to flip over one by one to get everything done. Inconvenience is the number ONE factor that led to kitchen staff not using standardized recipes.
  2. Time consuming – This is also one of the reasons why standardized recipe are not followed. During peak hours, a kitchen do not have time to waste, and every second counts.
  3. Better variations – Some Chefs prefer to follow their centric of taste, some are just worship their own believes. This could cause a problem when there is no proper training provided and Kitchen Control.
  4. Rules are meant to be broken – There are always different people/consumers around your restaurant. What’s important, the customers. When standardized recipes are not tested regularly on the restaurant, inaccurate information may be provided in the standardized recipe. Solution: Leave room or space for food/cooking variation. This usually happen when the Head Chef is not properly organized or trained well for his position.
  5. A secret no more – Some restaurateurs or Chefs frown on making a book of standardized recipe because they want to protect their food knowledge. This is a classic perception: Someone comes by, takes all the recipe and leave the restaurant after a month.
  6. When it’s gone, it’s really gone – At certain times in a restaurant, a piece of recipe sheet can get lost. When it’s lost, there will be a slight havoc in understanding as the Head Chef needs to take action immediately. On another situation, it can also be ‘stolen’ or ‘retrieved’ as management of the restaurant changes, and/or someone steals the particular information, or the restaurant faces mishaps like kitchen on fire.

Standardized recipes do not necessarily have certain standards that you need to follow. There are many ways to actually personalize your standardized recipe, keep them into your book and use them for referrals in the future. Alternatively, you can also save them into your computer, and organize them well. Whatever it is, standardized recipes serve good purposes in a kitchen – Take the time to actually follow the steps, and you might just get happier guests/customers.

There are three (3) common ways of writing a recipe:

  1. Paragraph-style recipes
  2. List-style recipes
  3. Action-style recipes

Paragraph Style Recipes This way of writing a recipe is classic – And they serve their own purpose in writing that way. There are many pros and cons to this kind of writing style, and we’d like to leave it up to you to figure it out. Anyway, here’s an example of a paragraph-style written recipe:

Put your skillet on the pan and turn on the heat to low. Now take a bowl, crack 2 fresh eggs inside and add in some salt and pepper. Next, grab a whisk and start beating it until it’s mixed or quite fluffy. When your skillet is hot enough, add in 1 tbsp of oil, and swirl the oil around. You’ll notice the oil runs faster on hot pans. When your pan and oil is hot enough, turn on the heat to high and pour in your eggs. Leave the heat on high until your eggs (at the side of the pan) forms a solid texture. At this time, reduce your heat to low. When your egg is cooked enough, flip it over and top it off with some ikan kering! Voilá!

Paragraph-style recipes can work at certain extent. Be sure to choose your methods of writing well.

List-style Recipes The list-style writing of recipes is one of the easiest, practical and most common ways of writing a recipe. This method consist of two sections – The header, and footer. Header consist of different elements such as recipe title, temperature, yield, time, etc, while the footer contains methods to use these ingredients. An example of list-style recipes:

-Eggs with Ikan Kering 2 no Eggs

-1 tbsp Oil

-Ikan kering

  1. Heat up your pan in low heat, crack two eggs into a bowl and add seasoning. Whisk well.
  2. When your pan is hot enough, add in your oil and wait until it’s hot.
  3. Pour it in and turn your heat to high, until you see the sides of your eggs are actually solid in texture.
  4. Reduce your heat to low, and cook the eggs well. Flip over.
  5. Top it off with some crumbled ikan kering and voilá!

Action-style recipes Action style recipes has been known as the killer way of listing recipes, amount, methods and ingredients in a very organized and well-mannered. The first step will usually contain ingredients and methods limited to only a particular food preparation, and the list continues and combines with step two and three. Here’s an example:

Action-style recipes can be very directive and you can add in more information to your liking. Choose which is best for you and your audience, then pick the right one and give them value.

Standard Elements in a Standardized Recipe Although we may see certain standard recipe metrics in a standardized recipe that may be both relevant and irrelevant to you, there are certain practical usage to it, and customizing your standardized recipe a good way to go when you need to emphasize certain recipe metrics in a recipe sheet. In a way, always think of your end-users rather than yourself.

Common Recipe Elements in a Standardized Recipe

  1. Ingredients
  2. Temperature
  3. Equipments & Utensils Needed
  4. Amount
  5. Method
  6. Media (Picture/Video)

These metrics are the basics – But what makes a better Standardized Recipe is to actually explain in detail what is the outcome, what should you avoid, what should you do and not do, etc. While these may be too long to squeeze into your methods area or the miscellaneous box in the action style recipe, you should include a section to it.

Recommended Standard Recipe Elements to Add These recommended standard recipe elements are absolutely optional and should only be included at selected times. Note that most recipes require only the simplest of steps to take, and portrayal of information should be as concise, clear and to the point as possible.

  1. Taste – At what degree should this dish taste like, and how you can stretch its seasoning properties from there.
  2. Precautions and Warnings – Precautions while handling these food mix or cooking methods.
  3. Tips & Advice – Best way to beef up preparation methods and cook well without the need for practical training.
  4. What to do while waiting – Important steps or methods to follow or take while waiting cooking or preparing a food ingredient or food ingredient mixes, etc.
  5. Alternatives – Alternatives to this cooking method, or that food ingredient which might not be available in certain areas of the world. Should there be any alternative ways to do it, it should be pointed out.
  6. Halal status – Halal status is very important. Certain foods are pre-packed in a non-halal manner, or foods containing pork-based materials used in preparation or alcohol usage. For example, rum flavoring. Comes in halal and non-halal.
  7. Garnishing recommendations – This should be included and portrayed after recipe methods.
  8. Miscellaneous information – This information should be portrayed at the very bottom of the recipe, stating ways on how to prepare and cut this meat, or measure the intensity of cooking in the meat. This could also serve as a section where you throw in a combination of Taste (No. 1) and Tips & Advice (No. 3).

Source by Von Cook

Management Styles – Micro-Manager Or Laissez-Faire?

Your management style can have a lot to do with your success in running a restaurant, or any other business. While people can debate all day long about which is the best management style to use in different situations, one thing people will agree on, if you get it right (or wrong) it can have a big affect on the success of your business.

There are a variety of management styles, and most effective managers use a combination of styles to handle different situations. A firm approach might work in one situation while different circumstances may be better handled with a softer approach. It largely depends on you and your personality.

It is when managers spend too much time at either extreme of the management spectrum, micromanagement and laissez-faire management, that problems can start to arise. While there may be times where either of these styles can be effective, too much time will lead to difficulties with your staff.

Micromanagement is a style that refers to a very hands on approach. It is typified by a manager that wants to control even the smallest details of every employees job. They want to know the details of every thing that goes on in their business. While this is not necessarily a bad thing, if it is the defining factor of a manager the staff may start to feel like everything they do is under scrutiny. They begin to feel like they have no power to make any decisions on their own.

The biggest downside is that supervisors and employees will not take ownership in their jobs, and without any ownership, there is very little pride in the work that they do. Over time, employees will feel frustrated to the point that they will start looking for a new place to work. While some employee turnover is a natural part of the restaurant industry, too much turnover can really disrupt your business. You will spend so much time in training that you will not have the time you need to move your business forward.

The other end of the spectrum is the laissez-faire manager. This is the complete opposite of the micro manager. Rather than trying to control every detail, the laissez-faire manager allows employees to make most of the decision on their own. The manager makes very few decisions about the running of the business. Most of the day to day operation is handled by supervisors or by the staff themselves.

Employees need to have some responsibility, if there is no management control the inmates will begin to take over the asylum. If left unsupervised employees may begin to start making decisions that look out for their own best interest, and not the best interest of your business.

Like in so many areas in life, you need to have balance in your management style. Rather than have one style that you force onto every situation, you will be better served to use a variety of styles that you can use in different situations. Your success depends on it.

Source by Jim Smoot

Hospital Management Software: Useful for the Complete Running of a Hospital

Hospital management software incorporates several important features that help in the smooth running of the day to day operations of a hospital. The program is designed in such a way that it takes care of the inpatients, outpatients, database of patients, billings, hospital information including doctors available, their specialization, the billing process and payments to various staff members. In a nutshell, hospital management software takes care of the every aspect of the running of a hospital in a cost effective manner.

Hospital Management Software: Key Features

This software incorporates features aimed at managing all the aspects of a hospital and cover areas like reception, OPD, inpatients, outpatients, medical records, inventory of medicines and other material, appointments, doctors in charge, scheduling of doctor duties, laboratory and accounts. Basic features of hospital management software are:

* Facilitates smooth and complete running of reception
* Management of the Laboratory and its equipment
* Management of all wards and bed allocation systems
* Management of the complete history of patients and their treatments
* Inventory management with regular and timely refurbishment of the stock of medicines and other instruments
* Regular scheduling of doctors and nurses to the various departments and allocation of their duties
* Proper and timely accounting to ensure correct billing
* Maintenance of proper record of the medical reports and tests of the various patients.
* Can be easily accessed by multiple users at the same time

Hospital Management Software: Benefits

Such software has features that allow the users to modify the details of the various patients and doctors and incorporate security features that prevent misuse of the stored information. This software allows the hospital owners and other users:

* To check the occupancy level at any point of time
* The number of doctors and other staff on duty
* To view the treatment being provided to any specific patient and his medical history
* To check the payments made by a patient and the amount due in his / her name
* To view and print the medical reports of patients
* To prepare various types of accounting reports
* To check the appointment list of the medical staff
* To check the billing status of various patients

Source by Abigail Dsoza

Free Fake MCSE Certificates

The MCSE certification is a hard-earned credential of the information technology specialist. Seven exams are passed to achieve this certification and there were many hours spent in the preparation for these exams. Colleges and universities offer preparatory courses to help you in study for the 70-290 exam. For those who can not attend local class. there are university courses offered online to get the information needed to prepare for the exam. Books and other materials are sold to complement these internet courses.

To pass the 7-290 exam, there are seven separate tests that must be successfully passed. The preparation for this series of exams can be quite intense. Some test candidates attend camps where the immersion in the subject matter is more thorough than one can achieve in colleges or universities. In addition to the lectures and group discussions in class, there are books these programs provide to help the testing candidates be ready for the exam.

The participants in these camps or university programs are system engineers, system administrators or anyone in the information and technology department who will be responsible for keeping the internal networks secure and running smoothly.

The certified professional with the genuine MCSE certification will have the knowledge and experience gained from books, classes, college and or university coursework and real-world experience to successfully tackle all business computing needs, which can be quite diverse. Everything ranging from the individual workstation maintenance to the management of disaster recovery.

There have been some articles and postings that advertise "Free Fake MCSE Certificates". The danger in these certificates is that the holder of the bogus MCSE is not a person who has necessarily read the books or attended the camps. They may not have spent the requisite time in college or university programs and they have a very large responsibility in the infrastructure management position to keep the corporation or business on a reliable and secure system. If a holder of a counterfeit MCSE Certificate is in a position of such vital importance, it threatens the well-being of that entire company. The genuine certified individual has passed the 7-290 exams, has the knowledge to support the varied and ever-changing needs of the Microsoft Windows 2003 server business environment, and it is well worth checking the credentials of all information technology professionals who claim to hold the MCSE.

Only by reading the books, passing the genuine 7-290 and having the knowledge gleaned from university and college classes or accredited camps can a person genuinely shoulder the responsibility of the Microsoft professional certified.

Source by Peter Hoskins

The Need for a PMI ACP Certification Training in Today’s Business World

The PMI stands for the Project Management Institute. They are the supervisor of the Project Management Professional (PMP) Certification. The PMP accreditation is an all around recognized confirmation and is the world’s top most certification for project management. Many organizations presently understand that projects are their greatest commitment to the business line. The interest for project experts develops every year.

What is the PMI Certification?

This certification was intended to guarantee that specialists can show both their dedication to and skill in their field and the prescribed procedures of the business. They concentrate on the experience, training, and competency of certification holders. The objective is to gather project members to a point where their works can exceed expectations.

An intriguing note is that around one-fifth of the GDP of the whole world is spent on various projects. In this manner, it is not amazing that organizations, governments, and different associations are increasingly mindful of the rising expenses and dangers associated with various projects. It is in everybody’s greatest advantage to see that the individuals who handle and work in project activities are trained and skillful experts.

PMI PMP documentation and others

Obviously, the PMP qualification is the most high-status confirmation and was additionally the principal certification offered by the PMI. The PMI is known as the world’s first expert affiliation. This association has been in charge of the models that make up great project works, ability in administration, proficient advancement assets, and accreditations that are internationally perceived. There are numerous companies who provide PMI ACP Certification Training in Hyderabad and other places.

What are the advantages of a PMP Certification course?

Being unique from the rest

One of the greatest points of interest of getting such a program authentication is, to the point that individuals can be distinctive and more noteworthy than the rest. They will be fit for displaying their capacity to handle various projects much better due to the valuable and broad course substance that can help in boosting their administrative attitudes to an incredible degree and help them to lead groups in a vastly improved manner and do projects effortlessly. Such a certificate will increase the value of their resume and be expert in this field can be evidence that they are completely skillful for being a project director.

Acknowledgment of the expertise set in the worldwide market

A PMP accreditation course is acknowledged around the world. In this way, a man will have the capacity to demonstrate to possible bosses that they hold the right capabilities to lead a group and also deal projects in a skillful way. This course is valuable for each kind of business beginning from Telecom to business administration, as they help in boosting the abilities of experts. In this way, it is exceedingly prescribed to get such certification.

Shows the capacity to handle and lead projects

Such a program is perceived all over the world and individuals with such a testament will have the ability to show people that they are fit for being a part of the project handling the world. Additionally, organizations will likewise get a reasonable thought of their aptitudes and subsequently give the correct position which they were looking for. There are various companies who provide PMI ACP Certification Training in Hyderabad and other places.

Get more job opportunities

Such a program certification is constantly useful in landing different job openings. In this way, this particular certificate will make managers view that the individual is promptly fit for taking care of a position and subsequently will offer them the position. A project manager must be prepared to handle challenging activities, and this program will make individuals build up the attitude and ability to handle testing works.

Source by Bharani Kumar

Ways to Measure Hotel Kitchen Performance

What do hotel visitors value most of all? Of course they want to live in good looking rooms, be able to use phone and the Internet, receive additional services as well as be able to enjoy exquisite cuisine. Yes, many people choose hotels just by the cuisine and reputation of hotel restaurants. This especially concerns five star hotels that attract wealthy people who love spending money eating excellent food. The world famous chefs often work in hotel restaurants. They create excellent reputation and in a certain way become the most effective advertising and promotion tool for hotel owners. If hotel managers want to improve performance and achieve positive financial results they have to pay a proper attention to hotel restaurants or kitchen. This may be as separate evaluation or a part of the huge process to measure efficiency of hotel administration.

Balanced scorecard is being actively used in various industries, including hotel industry. This fantastic performance evaluation and strategic management tool helps put strategy into action. Of course, balanced scorecard will not solve all business problems at once. However, it will help visualize strategy and locate problems and the discrepancies from strategic goals. The principle behind balanced scorecard is quite simple – it uses key performance indicators to measure progress or regress of the company on its way to implement strategic goals. In terms of hotel industry, these key performance indicators are related to everything happening inside and outside of a hotel. Evaluation of hotel kitchen performance is a very important process. Much money is spent to maintain kitchen and offer visitors breakfasts and dinners. This money may be spent in efficiently or hotel visitors do not like what they are served. Balanced scorecard can certainly help find out problematic areas in a hotel kitchen as well as solve problems in order to achieve strategic goals. Every hotel owner is dreaming of having an excellent reputation due to its world famous cuisine.

Key performance indicators for hotel kitchen evaluation fall into four categories: financial, customer, internal processes, learning and growth. In fact, these are universal balanced scorecard categories used in various industries. Thus, let’s analyze each category in the context of hotel kitchen performance evaluation.

Financial category covers all key performance indicators related to expenses and revenues of the hotel kitchen. The hotel spends some money to buy food, maintain restaurant and kitchen, pay waiters and chefs. In return, customers either by dinners or dinner costs are included to the room fee. Evaluation of financial indicators will help examine profitability of kitchen.

Customer key performance indicators cover satisfaction of customers with existing cuisine, their preferences and demands. Customer satisfaction is all important since everything done by the hotel staff is done for customers. Such indicators as new dishes and drinks per 100 customers or time spent by one customer in a hotel restaurant can help learn additional knowledge on hotel customers and their preferences in cuisine.

Internal processes and learning and growth categories refer to personnel of the hotel kitchen. Here one can use such indicators as number of training sessions per employee, average amount spent to educate one waiter etc.

Source by Sam Miller

The Pretest Alternative for Program Impact Evaluation

Most funders require organizations to submit an evaluation plan detailing how impact and outcomes will be measured. Many make evaluation harder than it needs to be by using a traditional pretest-posttest design. In this method, an assessment of participants' knowledge or attitudes are administered at the start of the training and then again at the conclusion. This design has merit, but it is not always the most economical or effective method for assessing social-services program outcomes.

In your next evaluation plan, considering a retroactive pretest-posttest design. In this method, the assessment is administered once at the end of the program, rather than twice. To assess change, the tool asks participants to refer back to a prior point in time, such as prior to the start of the program. Participants are then asked to answer the same questions thinking about their feelings today.

Some benefits of the retroactive pretest-posttest design compared to a traditional pretest-posttest design include:

¨ It is more economical. This method requires only one administration, saving printing costs and time spent in evaluation activity.

¨ It reduces bias that may occur if participants are not present at the very beginning and end of a program.

¨ It demonstrates more accurate assessment of program outcomes, especially when looking at change of knowledge and attitudes. In traditional pretests, participants may give an inaccurate self-report of one's knowledge because one does not yet have enough information to understand that one's knowledge of a subject is not well developed. This is particularly a concern when a program addresses complex subjects that are clarified over the course of the intervention.

¨ It is more useful for documenting self-assessed changes that occur as a result of the particular intervention, in part, because retrospective pretest-posttest evaluations are more sensitive to respondent change than traditional pretest-posttest evaluations.

Here is an example of a pretest-posttest assessment questions for a program designed to increase the evaluation capacity of an organization.

Section 1. Please think about your knowledge and skill level prior to your participation in this program.

How familiar were you with the following skills or concepts prior to participating in the DMC institutes? Use the following rating scale: Unaware = 1, Somewhat Familiar = 2, Familiar = 3, Very familiar = 4, Expert = 5

1. Develop a program logic model
2. Choose appropriate and relevant data-collection methods
3. Importance of fidelity

Section 2. How familiar with the following skills now? Use the following rating scale: Unaware = 1, Somewhat Familiar = 2, Familiar = 3, Very familiar = 4, Expert = 5

1. Develop a program logic model
2. Choose appropriate and relevant data-collection methods
3. Importance of fidelity

Section 3. To what extent do you agree with the following statements in regards to your organizations participation with this training? Please use the following scale: 1 = strongly disagree, 2 = disagree, 3 = neither disagree nor agree, 4 = agree, 5 = strongly agree.

1. I have better outcomes
2. I have more confidence in my ability to determine program success
3. I am more knowledgeable about program evaluation
4. My organization has started to implement evaluation in other programs

Now it is your turn. Think about your program's specific goals and outcomes. Make a list of those skills, attitudes, and knowledge you expect to change. Then turn them into a retroactive pretest-posttest evaluation.

Looking for more information? These references provide more information about the retroactive pretest-posttest design as well as provide support for this methodology when developing your grant applications.

¨ Davis, G. (2003). Using a retrospective pre-post questionnaire to determine program impact. Journal of Extension [On-line], 41 (4) Article 4TOT4. At Available: Http://

¨ Howard, GS, & Dailey, PR (1979). Response-shift bias: A source of contamination of self-report measures. Journal of Applied Psychology, 64 (2), 144-150.

¨ Howard, GS, Schmeck, RR, & Bray, JH (1979). Internal invalidity in studies employing self-report instruments: A suggested remedy. Journal of Educational Measurement, 16 (2), 129-135.

¨ Pratt, CC, McGuigan, WM, & Katzev, AR (2000). Measuring program outcomes: Using retrospective pretest methodology. American Journal of Evaluation, 21 (3), 341-349.

¨ Skeff, KM, Bergen, MR, & Stratos, GA (1992). Evaluation of a medical faculty development program: A comparison of traditional pre / post and retrospective pre / post self-assessment ratings. Evaluation and the Health Care Professions, 15 (3), 350-366.

Source by Sheri Chaney Jones

The Impact of Globalization on Taxation

Globalization can be defined as the process of increasing connectivity and uniting the worlds markets and businesses. Globalization has emerged the last couple decades as the internet has emerged, making it easier for people to travel, communicate, and do business internationally. When economies become more connected to other economies, they have increased opportunity but also increased competition. With Globalization evolving, more and more pro globalization and anti globalization lobbies have arisen. The pro globalization party argues that globalization brings about much increased opportunities for almost everyone, where the anti-globalization parties argue that certain groups of people who are deprived in terms of resources are not currently capable of functioning within the increased competitive pressure.

The Problem we face is that Globalization links the world’s major companies together and makes it more of a universal world. This may dramatically impact the majority of populations around the world because of the fact that many of these major companies find loopholes in the system and can hire accountants and lawyers and scheme their way around paying enormous amounts of tax whereas the average person is deprived of fair tax laws and the burden is placed on them to make up for the chunk of loss tax money. Multinational companies are well placed to exploit tax havens and hide true profits thereby avoiding tax. Through offshore tax havens and fraud, and through transfer pricing, billions of dollars go untaxed. Estimates range from $50 billion to $200 billion of revenue losses worldwide. These corporations use transfer pricing to make up for missing tax money by saying the revenues were utilized in selling a good or service to another company or subsidiary. It’s kind of compared to money laundering where criminals open business to say they make revenue through a good or service but in turn they are operating an illegal business but can tell the IRS they have made profit from something legal.

Many people wonder why taxation is so important. For rich countries like the United States, one main reason is that the less tax paid to the government means more for individuals, who are best placed to contribute to the economy. For poor countries it means they can determine their own route out of poverty. It’s also the way they can begin to free themselves from dependence on handouts and the punitive conditions attached to aid. Faced with the pressures of Globalization and the threat that companies will relocate unless given lower taxes, governments have responded by engaging in tax competition to attract and retain investment capital. In the US there is little evidence that state and local tax cuts when paid for by reducing public services stimulate economic activity or create jobs. Yet there is evidence that increases in taxes, when used to expand the quantity and quality of public services, can promote economic development and employment growth.

Globalization is thought to reduce the ability of governments to collect taxes. If labor and capital can move between jurisdictions, then attempts to tax these factors will lead to a vanishing taxpayer as factors flee from high to low tax regions. Most economists support globalization because it raises the incomes of peoples worldwide through a one world economy and a competitive business market from the richest to the poorest countries. In other words it creates a one world economy where not just four or five countries rein supreme it creates more balance to try and help the poorer countries prosper. Globalization has been happening for decades. The US government has already surrendered massive amounts of power political and economic power to global organizations such as the United Nations and the World Bank. Our economy has been emerging into a one world economy. If you look inside the United States many of our products sold in our stores are made from the other side of the world. Some people see globalization as sending millions of our jobs overseas and it is destroying the standard of living of America’s middle class. In the new global system, multinational corporations can shop for labor almost anywhere they want. So why should they give American workers good wages and good benefits when they can legally pay large numbers of workers on the other side of the globe slave labor wages and get away with it? For blue collar American workers, globalization has turned out to be a very, very bad deal as you can see with Detroit, Pittsburgh and many other manufacturing cities across the United States. Now since they must compete with slave labor in other countries, the labor of these blue collar workers has become greatly devalued. This is having a devastating impact on manufacturing in the United States.

Much of the jobs and industries that have been outsourced have gone to nations such as China. So what is the impact of Globalization on taxation and America? As capital and labor become more mobile and internationally dependent, international tax competition increases. With more jobs being shipped overseas and more and more Americans out of work and taxes increasing, it seems like our country has shifted their focus towards a Wal-mart state of mind. Sustainability is the plan for the our country and as far as tax competition it should bring more companies to poorer nations and leave Americans with fast food chains, Universal Health care and Wal-Mart. Globalization makes it harder for countries to tax at high rates because people and capital will flow out. As labor and capital become more mobile, international tax competition increases. With tax competition individuals and businesses gain the freedom to take advantage of low tax rates abroad. On the other side, Globalization could mean more trading and therefore more jobs created because more and different resources will be available to Americans. This could in turn open all types of new markets for Americans, which would create a new era of jobs for many unemployed Americans. Only the future will tell what the impact of globalization means to tax rates and American business. Until then, it seems sustainability may be the key to reviving a down-spiraling economy.

Source by Brian J Taylor